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Afghanistan

Afghanistan is one of the reference countries of Kavelin Group.
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01 History

Afghanistan is one of the least known nations in the world.
Located in Central Asia, the country has always been in the shadow of the neighbors: China, India, Russia and Iran. Its geographical location has helped to make of it a very complex state. The country is an anthropological jewel, where also the two great streams of Islam coexist.

During the nineteenth century it was a colonialist objective of Rusia and Great Britain, but it entered without much shock in the XX century, being its political, economic, cultural backwardness as well as its distance from the centers of interest of the metropolis, the main reason For which it was forgotten for decades.

Afghanistan became known internationally as a result of its bloody invasion by the Soviet Union (24 December 1979 to 15 February 1989). The main warlike exponent at the end of the Cold War. After the Soviet exit, a Civil War was unleashed in the country that was followed by the irruption of the Taliban (insurgents).

Following September 11th, 2001, bombing of the Twin Towers (New York - USA) and the subsequent war against the Taliban, Afghanistan became a prominent international news item.
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02 Society

The history of Afghanistan is very old and relatively stable until the overthrow of the last Afghan sovereign, Zahir Shah, in 1973, where authoritarian governments and an unfavorable international environment, led the country to the events described above.

One of the main characteristics of Afghanistan is its high ethnic diversity, with the distribution of its 28 million inhabitants (estimated, since there is no census proper), as follows:
  • Pashtun (25 - 30%)
  • Tajik (20-25%)
  • Hazara (15%)
  • Turkish ethnic groups (Uzbek, Turkmen, Kyrgyz and Aimaqs) (12%)
  • Nuristani (100,000 people)
  • Baloc, Brahuis and Koochi (400,000 people), Ismaili (200,000 people)
  • Finally the non-Muslim minorities, mainly Sikh and Indian (1%).

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03 Politics

The presidential election of 2014 broke records of participation. The second round was embroiled in cross-fraud accusations between the two candidates, Abdullah Abdullah and Ashraf Ghani, which resulted in international mediation and the final agreement to constitute a Government of National Unity: Ghani was inaugurated President and Abdullah, Prime Minister or CEO.

The day after their proclamation, the Afghan Government signed the long postponed Bilateral Security Agreement with the United States and the Status of NATO Forces in Afghanistan, which provides a legal basis for post-2014 international military presence.
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04 Economy

The political crisis following the 2014 Elections and the withdrawal of international security forces affected international confidence and thus the Afghan economy.

The current scenario is a modest recovery, caused by large flows of financing dedicated to development aid as well as subsidies focused on security. The new government is vigorously developing improvements aimed at strengthening governance, bolstering public finances and improving security through regional cooperation agreements.

The international community is fully involved in the development of the country, having committed over USD 67 billion from 2003 to 2012 through nine Donor Conferences. Tokyo (2012) conference expanded this capital by another 16 billion.

During the Brussels Conference on Afghanistan (4-5 October 2016) Both the donor countries and major multilateral agencies endorsed the Afghan government's ambitious reform agenda, pledging funding for the next four years of US $ 15.2 billion (+ / - € 13.6 billion). The scope of investment of this financing is reflected in the "Afghanistan national peace and development framework (ANPDF), 2017 to 2021".
Images: Ricardo Mangual (C.C BY 2.0) "Afghanistan" (Naray - Afghanistan). Ahmad Shah Massoud (1953 - 2001) Leader of the Northern Alliance and national hero. Fardin Waezi / UNAMA, August 8, 2014. "Dr. Abdullah Abdullah and Dr. Ashraf Ghani Ahmadzai".